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Mon Oct 4 19:40:36 1999 UTC (14 years, 9 months ago) by cebix
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1 cebix 1.1
2     mon, Version 2.2
3     A command-driven file monitor
4    
5     Copyright (C) 1997-1999 Christian Bauer, Marc Hellwig
6     Freely distributable
7    
8    
9 cebix 1.2 License
10     -------
11    
12     mon is available under the terms of the GNU General Public License. See the
13     file "COPYING" that is included in the distribution for details.
14    
15    
16 cebix 1.1 Overview
17     --------
18    
19     "mon" is an interactive command-driven file manipulation tool that is inspired
20     by the "Amiga Monitor" by Timo Rossi <trossi@jyu.fi>. It has commands and
21     features similar to a machine code monitor/debugger, but it is not intended
22     to be used for debugging. It doesn't operate on physical or virtual RAM
23     locations of a process but rather on a fixed-size (but adjustable) buffer with
24     adresses starting at 0. Also, there are no commands to trace code, set
25     breakpoints etc. There are, however, built-in PowerPC, 680x0, 6502 and 8080
26     disassemblers.
27    
28    
29     Installation
30     ------------
31    
32 cebix 1.2 Please consult the file "INSTALL" for installation instructions.
33 cebix 1.1
34    
35     Usage
36     -----
37    
38     mon can be started from the Shell or from the Tracker (BeOS), but command line
39     history doesn't work when started from the Tracker). If you give no command
40     line arguments, mon enters interactive mode. Otherwise, all arguments are
41     interpreted and executed as mon commands. The default buffer size is 1MB.
42     The mon command prompt looks like this:
43    
44     [00000000]->
45    
46     The number in brackets is the value of "." (the "current address", see the
47     section on expressions). You can get a short command overview by entering
48     "h".
49    
50     Commands that create a longer output can be interrupted with Ctrl-C.
51    
52     To quit mon, enter the command "x".
53    
54    
55     Constants, variables and expressions
56     ------------------------------------
57    
58     The default number base is hexadecimal. Decimal numbers must be prefixed with
59     "_". Hexadecimal numbers may also be prefixed with "$" for clarity. Numbers
60     can also be entered as ASCII characters enclosed in single quotes (e.g. 'BAPP'
61     is the same as $42415050). All numbers are 32-bit values (one word).
62    
63     With the "set" command, variables can be defined that hold 32-bit integer
64     values. A variable is referred to by its name. Variable names may be arbitrary
65     combinations of digits and letters (they may also start with a digit) that
66     are not also valid hexadecimal numbers. Names are case-sensitive.
67    
68     mon accepts expressions in all places where you have to specify a number. The
69     following operators are available and have the same meaning and precedence as
70     in the C programming language:
71    
72     ~ complement
73     + unary plus
74     - unary minus
75     * multiplication
76     / integer division
77     % modulo
78     + addition
79     - subtraction
80     << shift left
81     >> shift right
82     & bitwise AND
83     ^ bitwise exclusive OR
84     | bitwise inclusive OR
85    
86     Parentheses may be used to change the evaluation order of sub-expressions.
87    
88     There are two special symbols that can be used in expressions:
89    
90     . represents the "current address" (the value of "." is also displayed in
91     the command prompt). What exactly the current address is, depends on the
92     command last executed. The display commands set "." to the address after
93     the last address displayed, the "hunt" commands sets "." to the address
94     of the first found occurence of the search string, etc.
95     : is used by the "apply" ("y") command and holds the value of the byte/
96     half-word/word at the current address.
97    
98     The "modify" (":"), "fill" ("f") and "hunt" ("h") commands require you to
99     specify a byte string. Byte strings consist of an arbitrary number of byte
100     values and ASCII strings separated by commas. Examples:
101    
102     "string"
103     12,34,56,78,9a,bc,de,f0
104     "this",0a,"is a string",0a,"with","newlines",_10
105    
106    
107     The buffer
108     ----------
109    
110     Those mon commands that operate on "memory" operate on a buffer allocated by
111     mon whose size is adjustable with the "@" command. The default buffer size is
112     1MB. The buffer is an array of bytes where each byte has a 32-bit integer
113     address. Addresses start at 0 and are taken modulo the buffer size (i.e. for
114     the default 1MB buffer, addresses 0 and 100000 refer to the same byte).
115    
116     The buffer is the working area of mon where you load files into, manipulate
117     them, and write files back from. Arbitraty portions of the buffer may be used
118     as scratch space.
119    
120    
121     Commands
122     --------
123    
124     The following commands are available in mon ('[]' marks a parameter than can be
125     left out):
126    
127    
128     x Quit mon
129    
130     quits mon and returns to the shell.
131    
132    
133     h Show help text
134    
135     displays a short overview of commands.
136    
137    
138     ?? Show list of commands
139    
140     displays a short list of available commands.
141    
142    
143     ver Show version
144    
145     shows the version number of mon.
146    
147    
148     ? expression Calculate expression
149    
150     displays the value of the given expression in hex, decimal, and ASCII
151     characters. If the value is negative, it is displayed as a signed and unsigned
152     number.
153    
154    
155     @ [size] Reallocate buffer
156    
157     changes the size of the buffer to the given number of bytes while preserving
158     the contents of the buffer. If the "size" argument is omitted, the current
159     buffer size is displayed.
160    
161    
162     i [start [end]] ASCII memory dump
163    
164     displays the buffer contents from address "start" to address "end" as ASCII
165     characters. Entering "i" without arguments is equivalent to "i .". The value
166     of "." is set to the address after the last address displayed.
167    
168    
169     m [start [end]] Hex/ASCII memory dump
170    
171     displays the buffer contents from address "start" to address "end" as hex
172     words and ASCII characters. Entering "m" without arguments is equivalent to
173     "m .". The value of "." is set to the address after the last address displayed.
174    
175    
176     d [start [end]] Disassemble PowerPC code
177    
178     disassembles the buffer contents from address "start" to address "end".
179     Entering "d" without arguments is equivalent to "d .". The value of "." is
180     set to the address after the last address displayed.
181    
182    
183     d65 [start [end]] Disassemble 6502 code
184    
185     disassembles the buffer contents from address "start" to address "end".
186     Entering "d65" without arguments is equivalent to "d65 .". The value of
187     "." is set to the address after the last address displayed.
188    
189    
190     d68 [start [end]] Disassemble 680x0 code
191    
192     disassembles the buffer contents from address "start" to address "end".
193     Entering "d68" without arguments is equivalent to "d68 .". The value of
194     "." is set to the address after the last address displayed.
195    
196    
197     d80 [start [end]] Disassemble 8080 code
198    
199     disassembles the buffer contents from address "start" to address "end".
200     Entering "d80" without arguments is equivalent to "d80 .". The value of
201     "." is set to the address after the last address displayed.
202    
203    
204     d86 [start [end]] Disassemble 80x86 code (very incomplete)
205    
206     disassembles the buffer contents from address "start" to address "end".
207     Entering "d86" without arguments is equivalent to "d86 .". The value of
208     "." is set to the address after the last address displayed.
209    
210    
211     : start string Modify memory
212    
213     puts the specified byte string at the address "start" into the buffer. The
214     value of "." is set to the address after the last address modified.
215    
216    
217     f start end string Fill memory
218    
219     fill the buffer in the range from "start" to (and including) "end" with the
220     given byte string.
221    
222    
223     y[b|h|w] start end expr Apply expression to memory
224    
225     works like the "fill" ("f") command, but it doesn't fill with a byte string
226     but with the value of an expression that is re-evaluated for each buffer
227     location to be filled. The command comes in three flavors: "y"/"yb" works on
228     bytes (8-bit), "yh" on half-words (16-bit) and "yw" on words (32-bit). The
229     value of "." is the current address to be modified, the value of ":" holds
230     the contents of this address before modification.
231    
232     Examples:
233     yw 0 fff :<<8 shifts all words in the address range 0..fff to the left
234     by 8 bits (you can use this to convert bitmap data from
235     ARGB to RGBA format, for example)
236     y 0 1234 ~: inverts all bytes in the address range 0..1234
237     yh 2 ff 20000/. creates a table of the fractional parts of the reciprocals
238     of 1..7f
239    
240    
241     t start end dest Transfer memory
242    
243     transfers the buffer contents from "start" to (and including) "end" to "dest".
244     Source and destination may overlap.
245    
246    
247     c start end dest Compare memory
248    
249     compares the buffer contents in the range from "start" to (and including)
250     "end" with the contents at "dest". The addresses of all different bytes and
251     the total number of differences (decimal) are printed.
252    
253    
254     h start end string Search for byte string
255    
256     searches for the given byte string in the buffer starting at "start" up to
257     (and including) "end". The addresses and the total number of occurrences are
258     displayed. The value of "." is set to the address of the first occurrence.
259    
260    
261     \ "command" Execute shell command
262    
263     executes the given shell command which must be enclosed in quotes.
264    
265    
266     ls [args] List directory contents
267    
268     works as the shell command "ls".
269    
270    
271     rm [args] Remove file(s)
272    
273     works as the shell command "rm".
274    
275    
276     cp [args] Copy file(s)
277    
278     works as the shell command "cp".
279    
280    
281     mv [args] Move file(s)
282    
283     works as the shell command "mv".
284    
285    
286     cd directory Change current directory
287    
288     works as the shell command "cd". The name of the directory doesn't have to be
289     enclosed in quotes.
290    
291    
292     o ["file"] Redirect output
293    
294     When a file name is specified, all following output is redirected to this
295     file. The file name must be enclosed in quotation marks even if it contains
296     no spaces. Entering "o" without parameters closes the file and directs the
297     output into the terminal window again.
298    
299    
300     [ start "file" Load data from file
301    
302     loads the contents of the specified file into the buffer starting from address
303     "start". The file name must be enclosed in quotation marks even if it contains
304     no spaces. The value of "." is set to the address after the last address
305     affected by the load.
306    
307    
308     ] start size "file" Save data to file
309    
310     writes "size" number of bytes of the buffer from "start" to the specified file.
311     The file name must be enclosed in quotation marks even if it contains no spaces.
312    
313    
314     set [var[=value]] Set/clear/show variables
315    
316     If no arguments are given, all currently defined variables are displayed.
317     Otherwise, the value of "var" is set to the specified value. If "=value"
318     is omitted, the variable "var" is cleared.
319    
320    
321     cv Clear all variables
322    
323     clears all currently defined variables.
324    
325    
326     rmon
327     ----
328    
329     When mon is started as "rmon", it enters "real mode". That is, all memory
330     related functions no longer operate on the buffer but on "real" (virtual)
331     memory. Unless you are writing Mac emulators, this is probably of not much
332     use. :-)
333    
334    
335     Examples
336     --------
337    
338     Here are some simple examples for what is possible with mon.
339    
340     Join "file1" and "file2" to "file3":
341    
342     [ 0 "file1"
343     [ . "file2"
344     ] 0 . "file3"
345    
346     Remove the first 24 bytes (e.g. an unneeded header) of a file:
347    
348     [ 0 "file"
349     ] 18 .-18 "file"
350    
351     Load the mon executable and search for PowerPC "nop" commands:
352    
353     [ 0 "mon"
354     h 0 . 60,00,00,00
355    
356     Create a modified version of mon so that the prompt has " $" instead of "->":
357    
358     [ 0 "mon"
359     set size=.
360     h 0 . "->"
361     : . " $"
362     ] 0 size "mon1"
363    
364     Convert a binary file which contains 16-bit numbers in little-endian format
365     to big-endian format (or vice-versa):
366    
367     [ 0 "file"
368     yh 0 .-1 :>>8|:<<8
369     ] 0 . "file"
370    
371     Load a BeBox boot ROM image and start disassembling the system reset handler:
372    
373     [ 0 "bootnub.image"
374     d 100
375    
376    
377     History
378     -------
379    
380 cebix 1.2 Please consult the file "ChangeLog" for the release history.
381 cebix 1.1
382    
383     Christian Bauer
384 cebix 1.2 <Christian.Bauer@uni-mainz.de>
385 cebix 1.1
386     Marc Hellwig
387 cebix 1.2 <Marc.Hellwig@uni-mainz.de>

Christian Bauer">Christian Bauer
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